How to Optimize RAM Requirements for 1 Million Vectors: A Case Study

Andrei Vasnetsov


December 07, 2022

How to Optimize RAM Requirements for 1 Million Vectors: A Case Study

Mastering RAM Measurement and Memory Optimization in Qdrant: A Comprehensive Guide

When it comes to measuring the memory consumption of our processes, we often rely on tools such as htop to give us an indication of how much RAM is being used. However, this method can be misleading and doesn’t always accurately reflect the true memory usage of a process.

There are many different ways in which htop may not be a reliable indicator of memory usage. For instance, a process may allocate memory in advance but not use it, or it may not free deallocated memory, leading to overstated memory consumption. A process may be forked, which means that it will have a separate memory space, but it will share the same code and data with the parent process. This means that the memory consumption of the child process will be counted twice. Additionally, a process may utilize disk cache, which is also accounted as resident memory in the htop measurements.

As a result, even if htop shows that a process is using 10GB of memory, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the process actually requires 10GB of RAM to operate efficiently. In this article, we will explore how to properly measure RAM usage and optimize Qdrant for optimal memory consumption.

How to measure actual RAM requirements

We need to know memory consumption in order to estimate how much RAM is required to run the program. So in order to determine that, we can conduct a simple experiment. Let’s limit the allowed memory of the process and observe at which point it stops functioning. In this way we can determine the minimum amount of RAM the program needs to operate.

One way to do this is by conducting a grid search, but a more efficient method is to use binary search to quickly find the minimum required amount of RAM. We can use docker to limit the memory usage of the process.

Before running each benchmark, it is important to clear the page cache with the following command:

sudo bash -c 'sync; echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches'

This ensures that the process doesn’t utilize any data from previous runs, providing more accurate and consistent results.

We can use the following command to run Qdrant with a memory limit of 1GB:

docker run -it --rm \
    --memory 1024mb \
    --network=host \
    -v "$(pwd)/data/storage:/qdrant/storage" \

Let’s run some benchmarks

Let’s run some benchmarks to see how much RAM Qdrant needs to serve 1 million vectors.

We can use the glove-100-angular and scripts from the vector-db-benchmark project to upload and query the vectors. With the first run we will use the default configuration of Qdrant with all data stored in RAM.

# Upload vectors
python --engines qdrant-all-in-ram --datasets glove-100-angular

After uploading vectors, we will repeat the same experiment with different RAM limits to see how they affect the memory consumption and search speed.

# Search vectors
python --engines qdrant-all-in-ram --datasets glove-100-angular --skip-upload

All in Memory

In the first experiment, we tested how well our system performs when all vectors are stored in memory. We tried using different amounts of memory, ranging from 1512mb to 1024mb, and measured the number of requests per second (rps) that our system was able to handle.

1152mbout of memory
1024mbout of memory

We found that 1152Mb memory limit resulted in our system running out of memory, but using 1512mb, 1256mb, and 1200mb of memory resulted in our system being able to handle around 780 RPS. This suggests that about 1.2Gb of memory is needed to serve around 1 million vectors, and there is no speed degradation when limiting memory usage above 1.2Gb.

Vectors stored using MMAP

Let’s go a bit further! In the second experiment, we tested how well our system performs when vectors are stored using the memory-mapped file (mmap). Create collection with:

PUT /collections/benchmark
  "vectors": {
    "on_disk": true

This configuration tells Qdrant to use mmap for vectors if the segment size is greater than 20000Kb (which is approximately 40K 128d-vectors).

Now the out-of-memory happens when we allow using 600mb RAM only

Experiments details

— use a bit faster disk —

1000mb25 rps
750mb5 rps
625mb2.5 rps
600mbout of memory

At this point we have to switch from network-mounted storage to a faster disk, as the network-based storage is too slow to handle the amount of sequential reads that our system needs to serve the queries.

But let’s first see how much RAM we need to serve 1 million vectors and then we will discuss the speed optimization as well.

Vectors and HNSW graph stored using MMAP

In the third experiment, we tested how well our system performs when vectors and HNSW graph are stored using the memory-mapped files. Create collection with:

PUT /collections/benchmark 
  "vectors": {
    "on_disk": true
  "hnsw_config": {
    "on_disk": true

With this configuration we are able to serve 1 million vectors with only 135mb of RAM!

Experiments details
600mb5 rps
300mb0.9 rps / 1.1 sec per query
150mb0.4 rps / 2.5 sec per query
135mb0.33 rps / 3 sec per query
125mbout of memory

At this point the importance of the disk speed becomes critical. We can serve the search requests with 135mb of RAM, but the speed of the requests makes it impossible to use the system in production.

Let’s see how we can improve the speed.

To measure the impact of disk parameters on search speed, we used the fio tool to test the speed of different types of disks.

# Install fio
sudo apt-get install fio

# Run fio to check the random reads speed
fio --randrepeat=1 \
    --ioengine=libaio \
    --direct=1 \
    --gtod_reduce=1 \
    --name=fiotest \
    --filename=testfio \
    --bs=4k \
    --iodepth=64 \
    --size=8G \

Initially, we tested on a network-mounted disk, but its performance was too slow, with a read IOPS of 6366 and a bandwidth of 24.9 MiB/s:

read: IOPS=6366, BW=24.9MiB/s (26.1MB/s)(8192MiB/329424msec)

To improve performance, we switched to a local disk, which showed much faster results, with a read IOPS of 63.2k and a bandwidth of 247 MiB/s:

read: IOPS=63.2k, BW=247MiB/s (259MB/s)(8192MiB/33207msec)

That gave us a significant speed boost, but we wanted to see if we could improve performance even further. To do that, we switched to a machine with a local SSD, which showed even better results, with a read IOPS of 183k and a bandwidth of 716 MiB/s:

read: IOPS=183k, BW=716MiB/s (751MB/s)(8192MiB/11438msec)

Let’s see how these results translate into search speed:

MemoryRPS with IOPS=63.2kRPS with IOPS=183k

As you can see, the speed of the disk has a significant impact on the search speed. With a local SSD, we were able to increase the search speed by 10x!

With the production-grade disk, the search speed could be even higher. Some configurations of the SSDs can reach 1M IOPS and more.

Which might be an interesting option to serve large datasets with low search latency in Qdrant.


In this article, we showed that Qdrant has flexibility in terms of RAM usage and can be used to serve large datasets. It provides configurable trade-offs between RAM usage and search speed. If you’re interested to learn more about Qdrant, book a demo today!

We are eager to learn more about how you use Qdrant in your projects, what challenges you face, and how we can help you solve them. Please feel free to join our Discord and share your experience with us!

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